Mark Sobel, MD. PC. - Orthopaedic Surgeon
 

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Foot & Ankle

Foot & Ankle Anatomy :: Ankle Fracture :: Bunions
Achilles Tendon Rupture :: Ankle Sprain :: Common Toe Deformities :: Plantar Fasciitis :: Heel Spur & Plantar Fasciitis :: Neuroma :: Flat Feet :: Hammertoes :: Ingrown Toenails :: Heel Pain :: Plantar Warts :: Foot Odor :: Fungal Nails

Foot & Ankle Anatomy

How does the Foot & Ankle joint work?
Find out more in this web based movie.

Foot & Ankle Anatomy Foot & Ankle Anatomy  

Ankle Fracture

Ankle injuries are the most common sports-related injury. An ankle fracture is a break in one or more bones that make up the ankle joint. Sometimes ligaments may also be damaged.

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Ankle Fracture Ankle Fracture  

Bunions

Bunion is a foot deformity that changes the shape of the foot causing the big toe to turn inward, towards the second toe leading to pain and inflammation. A bunion is caused by incorrect footwear, joint damage, arthritis, and genetic disposition.

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Bunions Bunions  

Achilles Tendon Rupture

Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects the calf muscles to heel bone. It is used when you walk, run and jump. When the Achilles tendon becomes thin, weak, or if it is not used, it may be susceptible to injury or damage.

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Achilles Tendon Rupture Achilles Tendon Rupture  

Ankle Sprain

A sprain is stretching or tearing of ligaments, which connect adjacent bones in a joint and provides stability to the joint. An ankle sprain is a common injury and occurs when you fall or suddenly twist the ankle joint or when you land your foot in an awkward position after a jump.

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Ankle Sprain Ankle Sprain  

Common Toe Deformities

Toes are the digits in your foot and are associated with walking, providing balance, weight-bearing and other activities. A variety of toe deformities occur in children's feet.

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Common Toe Deformities Common Toe Deformities Common Toe Deformities

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is a common problem that causes pain under the heel bone often with lengthy walks and prolonged standing. It is most often seen in middle-aged men and women. Plantar fascia is a thick band of tissue that lies at the bottom of the foot. It runs from the heel bone to the toe and forms the arch of the foot. The plantar fascia functions as a shock absorber and also supports the arch of the foot.

Plantar Fasciitis Plantar Fasciitis  

Heel Spur & Plantar Fasciitis

When the plantar fascia (a thick ligamentous connective tissue that runs from the heel bone to the ball of the foot) becomes inflamed due to excessive stretching, too much pressure, or trauma, the condition of plantar fasciitis results. The plantar fascia can become partially detached at the heel.. A heel spur is a spur of bone that can form on the heel bone (calcaneus) as a result of this condition. Often the pain is most severe when you first stand on the foot in the morning. Pain often subsides quite quickly, but then returns after prolonged standing or walking.

Heel Spur & Plantar Fasciitis Heel Spur & Plantar Fasciitis Heel Spur & Plantar Fasciitis

Neuroma

A neuroma is an inflammation of nerve tissue usually located in the ball of the foot and occasionally into the toes. This inflammation is caused by two metatarsal bones that rub and pinch the nerve. The feeling of a neuroma is sometimes equated to a bunched up sock or stepping on a pebble but symptoms may also include tingling, burning, cramping and/or aching in and across the ball of the foot or toes or periods of numbness. Over time, the top of the foot may become painful because these tendons work harder to alleviate the discomfort caused by the neuroma. In general, the longer a neuroma is present, the more difficult it is to treat.

Neuroma Neuroma Neuroma

Flat Feet

Flat feet are usually hereditary and commonly associated with symptoms in the foot, leg, knees, hips and/or back. This condition is associated with boney deformities such as spurs, hammertoes, bunions and arthritis from abnormal, excessive bone and joint motion. Conservative treatment includes treatment for any related deformity, but ultimately, custom functional foot orthoses are necessary to control the abnormal position and function of the feet and legs. This condition tends to be progressive in both the actual collapsing of the arch of the foot and also on all the parts of the foot and leg that move abnormally because of the collapsed arch. If conservative measures fail, then an outpatient procedure can be performed to correct the collapsed arch and related deformities.

Flat Feet Flat Feet

Corns and Calluses

These ailments are often caused by repeated friction or rubbing within the shoe. Improper footwear or a bony prominence such as a hammertoe is often to blame. Corns and calluses can be treated by wearing proper shoes with cushioned insoles, or by using over-the-counter corn/callus pads.

Corns and Calluses Corns and Calluses Corns and Calluses

Hammertoes

Hammertoes occur in the lesser toes and often become painful when wearing shoes with inadequate depth, such as loafers or women's pumps. Surgical correction of these deformities is usually recommended when they become painful.

Hammertoes Hammertoes Hammertoes

Ingrown Toenails

This ailment occurs when the toenail digs painfully into the surrounding skin, often causing infection. Ingrown nails are usually caused by improper trimming, but improper or tight-fitting shoes, fungal infections or heredity can be a contributing factors. Preventative steps include trimming toenails straight across and wearing proper shoes. Corrective treatment for ingrown nails usually entails a minor in-office procedure performed under local anesthesia.

Ingrown Toenails Ingrown Toenails Ingrown Toenails

Heel Pain

Heel pain is a common condition in both men and women. There are a number of possible causes for heel pain, including injury, overuse syndromes, soft-tissue inflammation, arthritis-related conditions, and/or improper footwear. Depending upon the individual cause, treatment may include placing a simple cushion in the shoe, stretching exercises, cortisone injections, prescription medication, or orthotics. On rare occasions, surgery may be needed. Heel pain can become chronic and debilitating if left untreated.

Heel Pain Heel Pain

Plantar Warts

The sole of the foot is known as the plantar surface. Plantar warts are caused by a virus in the skin, and are usually contracted from walking barefooted around community pools, locker rooms or showers. These warts are most commonly found in children and young adults, but can affect people of all ages. The treatment for plantar warts will vary depending upon the size, number and location of the lesions. Wearing protective footwear around wet, dirty floors can effectively prevent plantar warts. The first line of treatment is often the use of topical acids to dissolve the wart. If this proves unsuccessful, Dr. Sobel may need to apply other medications in the office or trim the lesions down.

Plantar Warts Plantar Warts Plantar Warts

Foot Odor

Foot Odor (also called bromhydrosis) is something that few people wish to discuss, even with their doctor. The root cause of foot odor is excessive perspiration, leading to bacterial overgrowth. Changing shoes and socks frequently, special foot soaks and certain topical medications can control foot odor.

Foot Odor Foot Odor

Fungal Nails

Foot Odor (also called bromhydrosis) is something that few people wish to discuss, even with their doctor. The root cause of foot odor is excessive perspiration, leading to bacterial overgrowth. Changing shoes and socks frequently, special foot soaks and certain topical medications can control foot odor.

Fungal Nails Fungal Nails Fungal Nails

Click on the topics below to find out more from the Orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

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